1KD-FTV ENGINE FOR 3000 CC TOYOTA HILUX VIGO, 3000 CC TOYOTA FORTUNER AND 3000 CC TOYOTA PRADO
This versatile engine was introduced in 2003 in the then new Toyota Prado and is now a part of 3.0 Toyota Hilux Vigo, Toyota Hiace and Toyota’s best selling SUV Toyota Fortuner. Its specifications are:
Bore x Stroke: 97.0 x 103.0 mm
Displacement: 2982 cc
Power: 120 kW , 163 HP DIN @ 3,400 rpm;
Torque 343 Nm @ 1,600 rpm
All 3000 cc (actually 2982) Vigos come with this excellent engine. F in FT stands for “economical” (don’t ask me how) twin cam (narrow angle, around 22 degrees) and T for turbocharged.
First released in the 2000, the 1KD-FTV is one of the newest engines build by Toyota. 1KD-FTV a 3.0L (2982cc) straight-4 common rail variable nozzle turbo (variable geometry turbocharger) coupled with a 32-bit ECU and Multi Pilot Injection System, diesel engine Turbo diesel engine with an Intercooler. It has 16 valves and a DOHC (double overhead camshaft). Bore is 96 mm and stroke is 103 mm. It powers 170 hp (125 kW) at 3400 rpm, and 35.9 kgf･m (352 N·m) of torque at 1800-3400 rpm. Redline of this engine is at 4200 RPM. Compression ratio is 17.9:1.
This engine uses D-4D (Direct Injection 4 Stroke Common Rail Diesel Engine) electronic Common Rail (Common rail direct fuel injection ) technology, produces ultra high pressure, 135 mpa (1350 bar), which is about 8 times more than the pressure of the normal fuel injection system within the “common rail” that feeds all four cylinders (older diesel engines have a separate pipe leading from the pump to each cylinder). This combined with the 32-bit ECU which controls fuel quantity, valve-timing, and accurate pressure at different engine revolutions result in the most fuel economy and also in the full utilization of power, whether it is during taking off or during taking over, without having to drag the engine revolution to the maximum. Making the achievement with the fuel consumption 11% more effective compared to its predecessor 1KZ-TE engine thus 17% more powerful. Fuel consumption is also 12% more effective than the all new Toyota Hybrid engines. The Pilot Injection System helps smooth engine running like sitting in saloon cars. The noise level is only 49 decibels at the idle speed. The Pilot Injection System produces fuel injection in advance before the main injection starts working, reducing Ignition Lag Time and resulting in continuous and complete combustion. Noise from ignition is also reduced.
The 3.0-litre D-4D is the latest derivative of the renowned diesel engine which also appears in the flagship Toyota Land Cruiser range. It features second-generation common-rail technology, smooth control of the turbocharger variable vanes and a swirl control system for maximum efficiency.
The common rail system develops a maximum pressure of 1,600 bar, allowing the use of injector nozzles with smaller diameter holes to create a more homogenous air-fuel mix, improving the efficiency of the combustion process. This translates into more performance with lower emissions and lower fuel consumption.
The improvements introduced to the combustion process mean the compression ratio can be lower, at 17.9:1, than in other, less advanced diesel engines. This results in less heat build-up in the piston bowl and a more efficient combustion process, therefore enabling more performance with lower emissions and less noise.
One key to the impressive power and torque output of the 3.0-litre D-4D has always been the sophisticated, variable vane, turbocharger. Toyota uses an electric DC (direct current) motor to activate the variable nozzle vane mechanism, instead of the conventional step motor. The result is sharper response from the turbocharger, particularly at lower speeds.
The engine also benefits from a Swirl Control System. Each cylinder is supplied with air/exhaust mixture through two different ducts. Butterfly valves operated by the Swirl Control System can shut off one of these ducts according to the engine speed and load, increasing the mixture’s swirl rate.
At low engine speeds this device improves the air-fuel mixture, thus increasing torque availability at low speeds along with lower emissions.